# Application Catalog

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2018-04-18

## Graphs

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248 - Analysis of a Variable Reluctance Resolver

To measure the angular position / speed of a rotating element there are different available devices. Encoder (incremental, absolute) or Resolvers. Since the resolver is composed only of iron cores and coils, it is more robust than the rotary encoder about environmental resistance. So, it is used for power system motors and EPS which require high environmental resistance.

Module: DP | 2018-04

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245 - Control of an Injector and the Impact of Eddy Currents

JMAG allow us to connect directly a MATLAB/Simulink simulation with a JMAG one. When can therefore see the impact of the control system directly on our design. Furthermore we can now also see the impact that eddy currents can have on the response of our design to control we want to apply. In this example, we are going to look at the difference in response of an injector considering eddy currents or not considering them.

Module: DP | 2018-04

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240 - N-T Characteristic Analysis of an IPM using PAM drive

A standard PMSM needs a drive system in order to operate. There are different types of drives like the PAM drive and PWM drive. The objective of this document is to demonstrate the performance of a PMSM while using Pulse Amplitude Modulation or PAM drive. The principle of a PAM drive is simple, a carrier signal cuts through the supply signal to create pulses, the amplitude of these pulses can be controlled by controlling the amplitude of the supply signal.

Module: DP | 2018-04

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229 - Analysis of the Effect of PWM on the Iron Loss of an Induction Motor

An induction motor is a motor in which the rotating magnetic field of the stator coils causes induced current to flow in an auxiliary conductor, which produces force in the rotational direction. Induction motors are widely used in everything from industrial machines to home appliances because they have a simple construction without parts that experience wear from abrasion, and can be used simply by connecting them to a power source.

Module: DP, LS | 2018-04

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225 - Induced Voltage Analysis of Memory Motor using Variable Magnetized Magnet

Along with the development of electric vehicles, demands are increasing for a balance in trade-offs between low speed-high torque and high speed within permanent magnet motors. For that reason, research into the variable flux motors capable of obtaining the magnetic force necessary for high torque and the ability to reduce induced voltage within high speed rotation regions has been actively studied in recent years.

Module: DP | 2018-04

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Magnets are used in motors and display large variation in their properties verse temperature. For rare earth magnets at temperatures in the hundreds of degrees demagnetization can occur. Since the presence or absence and degree of demagnetization are determined by a combination of the demagnetizing field and the temperature applied, it is necessary to pay attention to magnetic circuit design in addition to the heat resistance of the magnet itself.

Module: DP, ST | 2018-04

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219 - Cogging Torque Analysis of Axial Flux Motor

Axial flux motors are a type of electrical machines which use the flux in axial direction to create a magnetic circuit linkage with the other components in the magnets. The main benefit of this machine being that it is thinner than the radial motors and can have a high torque to magnet densities if designed correctly. They are used in various automotive to other applications.

Module: TR | 2018-04

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210 - Torque Decoupling of In-out Magnet Coupling

Magnet coupling has two rotors, the driving side and the passive side. Unlike magnetic gears, the driving side and the passive side rotate synchronously. If torque exceeds the allowable torque, connection from the driving side to the passive side will slip, causing torque decoupling.

Module: DP | 2018-01

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209 - Magnetic Measurement Analysis Accounting for Eddy Currents

Magnetic properties affect the performance of products composed of magnetic circuits using magnetic material. This requires that the magnetic properties are assessed accurately. The H current method and excitation current method can be used to measure magnetic properties of magnetic material.

Module: TR | 2015-04

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207 - Transfer Torque and Efficiency Analysis of Magnetic Gear

Gears are used to transfer power. Velocity and torque are transformed depending on the gear ratio. Originally, mechanical gears using conventional wheels had issues with noise due to the meshing of wheels, and its maintenance requiring lubricating oil. As a gear to solve these issues, there is the magnetic gear.

Module: DP | 2015-12

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192 - Response Characteristics Analysis of Solenoid Valves Accounting for Residual Magnetization

A solenoid valve becomes an electromagnet by applying current through the coil and moves the plunger by using electromagnetic force (attractive force) generated in the magnetic materials. Especially in products that require a quick response in the plunger, the time it takes for the valve to open and close is an evaluation indicator,...

Module:DP | 2014-12

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191 - Torque Analysis of Three-Phase Induction Motors Accounting for the Skew Using the Multi-slice Method

An induction motor can utilize skew easily because the cage is constructed by metallic casting such as die casting. When skew is applied, it arranges the variations in the magnetic flux that links to the cage in a sinusoidal wave. This makes it possible to eliminate the harmonic components from...

Module:DP | 2014-12

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189 - Response Characteristics Analysis of Injectors Accounting for Collision

A solenoid type injector used in engines opens a valve and injects fuel by moving a plunger with magnetic force created by an electromagnet. Injectors in engines need to respond quickly for applied voltage to improve fuel consumption by maintaining the amount of fuel flow.

Module:DP | 2017-08

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180 - Analysis of SR Motor Dynamic Characteristics

With the skyrocketing prices of rare earth magnets, expectations have been rising for SR (switched reluctance) motors because they have a motor format that does not use permanent magnets. SR motors have a simple structure that can achieve solid performance at a low price.

Module:DP | 2014-04

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179 - Analysis of SR Motor Static Characteristics

With the skyrocketing prices of rare earth magnets, expectations have been rising for SR (switched reluctance) motors because they have a motor format that does not use permanent magnets. SR motors have a simple structure that can achieve solid performance at a low price.

Module:DP | 2013-01

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167 - Iron Loss Analysis of a Three Phase Induction Motor

An induction motor is a motor in which the rotating magnetic field of the stator coils causes induced current to flow in an auxiliary conductor, which produces force in the rotational direction.
Induction motors are widely used in everything from industrial machines to home appliances...

Module:DP,LS | 2013-06

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161 - Line Start Analysis of a Three-phase Induction Machine

The simplest method for starting an induction motor is a line start that connects the motor to a direct power supply. For a line start, the static impedance is small compared to impedance during rated operation, so a large current flows during the initial start-up.

Module:DP | 2012-08

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159 - Sensitivity Analysis of Dimensional Tolerance in an SPM Motor

The corners of magnets used in surface permanent magnet (SPM) motors can be filleted, chamfered, etc. However, it is difficult to maintain exactly the same production in the manufacturing process, and some variation among finished products will occur. Dimensional tolerance is set so as to eliminate...

Module:DP | 2013-10

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139 - Power Transmission Analysis Using Magnetic Resonance Phenomena

Recently, magnetic resonance is gaining attention as a new type of wireless transmission technology. Magnetic resonance differs from conventional types of electromagnetic induction transmission that are widely used today in that the axes of the transmission and receiving coils do not need to be aligned and...

Module:FQ | 2014-02

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129 - Analysis of a PM Stepper Motor Accounting for Magnetization

Stepper motors are commonly used for positioning in printers and digital cameras. In PM stepper motors, the motor's characteristics are determined through design of the magnetization state of the permanent magnet used. It is necessary to accurately evaluate this magnetization state in order to improve...

Module:ST,TR | 2013-09

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127 - Resistance Heating Analysis of Steel

Deformation occurs when large metal parts such as shafts undergo machining, causing their material properties to worsen. Because of this, these material properties are restored by eliminating machining deformations using thermal processing, which returns the metal structure to its standard condition.

Module:FQ,HT | 2013-12

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124 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor Accounting for Uneven Stator Diameter

When a motor is assembled, the inner diameter of the stator can become uneven because of fabrication errors, shrink fitting, press fitting, etc. Cogging torque increases due to this unevenness, causing vibration and noise.
When a frame is pressed onto a stator core, and when the frame thickness is not uniform...

Module:DP,DS | 2013-06

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122 - Inductance Analysis of an IPM Motor - d/q-axis Inductance Obtained by Actual Measurement -

Evaluating the inductance characteristics along the d/q-axis is important when analyzing the saliency of a rotor in an IPM motor. With actual measurements, it is possible to calculate the inductance in the d-axis and q-axis by measuring the no-load magnetic flux or the voltage and current with a three-phase current flowing...

Module:DP | 2013-10

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121 - Output Analysis of a Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator

Salient-pole synchronous generators are used in hydroelectric generators and the like. Power is generated in the stator coils (armature) by a field current flowing in the rotor coils and the rotor rotating.
Reactions occur between the field current and the armature current that either strengthen or weaken...

Module:DP | 2013-04

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120 - Thermal Demagnetization Analysis of an SPM Motor

Exactly how to resolve the problem of rising temperatures is a vital issue when trying to achieve an improvement in a motor's efficiency and output. Among the materials used in a motor, the magnet experiences the greatest variations in properties in relation to temperature. In the case of rare-earth magnets,...

Module:DP | 2014-08

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116 - Operating Time Analysis of an Injector by Evaluating the Reduction in Eddy Currents

A solenoid type injector used in engines opens a valve and injects fuel by moving a plunger with magnetic force created by an electromagnet. Injectors in engines need to respond quickly to applied voltage in order to control the amount of fuel flow and improve fuel efficiency.

Module:TR | 2015-08

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111 - Starting Performance Analysis of a Universal Motor

A universal motor is a motor that rotates on both direct and alternating currents. A universal motor is used in home appliances and industrial machines because these motors are robust, compact, light, and fast with a simple construction, and have a large starting torque. However, problems such as vibration and...

Module:DP | 2015-12

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109 - Operating Time Analysis of an Electromagnetic Relay Accounting for Eddy Currents

Electromagnetic relays are devices that use an electromagnet to physically connect and disconnect contact points. Magnetic flux is generated from the magnetomotive force, which is expressed as the product of the number of turns in the coil and the current that is applied to the coil.

Module:TR | 2017-08

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103 - Efficiency Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

A permanent magnet synchronous motor rotates by converting electric energy to mechanical energy.
The important thing when converting energy is efficiency indicated by the power factor for the amount of current effectively used, as well as the percentage of output versus input.

Module:DP,LS | 2017-02

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94 - Analysis of Detent Torque of a PM Stepper Motor

PM stepper motors are commonly used for positioning of moving parts in small devices such as printers and video equipment. In order for its drive to function with an open loop, the most important characteristics for a stepper motor are controllability and holding torque, and not the motor's output.

Module:TR | 2013-02

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93 - Cogging Torque Analysis of a Motor with 8 Poles and 9 Slots Accounting for Eccentricity

Eccentricity can occur on the center axis or the rotation axis of a motor. It is advantageous to evaluate the effects of eccentricity because it can cause vibrations and noise and break the symmetry of the magnetic flux density distribution and the electromagnetic force.

Module:DP | 2010-08

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89 - Stiffness Torque Analysis of a PM Stepper Motor

PM stepper motors are commonly used for positioning of moving parts in small devices such as printers and video equipment. In order for its drive to function with an open loop, the most important characteristics for a stepper motor are controllability and holding torque, and not the motor's output.

Module:TR | 2016-10

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80 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor with Skewed Magnetization

Reductions in vibration and noise are being sought after because they are a cause of torque variations in motors, and demands for reduction are particularly strong with motors that are used in machine tools and power steering. Cogging torque, which is a torque variation that is produced when there is no current,...

Module:TR | 2013-06

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67 - Analysis of AC Loss in a Superconductor

When superconductors are in the superconducting state, in which temperature, magnetic field and current become lower than a critical value, its electrical resistance becomes zero. Although superconducting wire rod requires a cooling system to maintain a low-temperature state, having features such...

Module:TR | 2010-08

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66 - Operating Time Analysis of an Injector

A solenoid type injector used in engines opens a valve and injects fuel by moving a plunger with magnetic force created by an electromagnet. Injectors in engines need to respond quickly for applied voltage to improve fuel consumption by maintaining the amount of fuel flow.

Module:DP | 2014-12

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65 - Static Thrust Analysis of a Voice Coil Motor

Linear actuators are used in machine tools because of their high-speed performance, high acceleration and deceleration, and accurate positioning. There are coreless types of linear actuators, as well. They generally have a smaller thrust force than core linear actuators, but they do not produce cogging, ...

Module:TR | 2013-10

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64 - Thrust Force Analysis of a Coreless Linear Motor

Linear motors are widely used for carrier devices and machine tools because of their high-speed performance, high acceleration and deceleration, and accurate positioning. Among them there is a type of motor called a coreless linear motor. Coreless linear motors generally have a smaller thrust force than core linear motors,...

Module:TR | 2013-10

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62 - Attractive Force Analysis of a Solenoid Valve

Solenoid valves move their iron cores in a translational direction, and are used to adjust the inflow and outflow amounts of liquids and gasses. Running current through the coil forms an electromagnet, which generates an electromagnetic attraction force between the mover and stator.

Module:DP | 2013-10

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61 - Current Distribution Analysis of a Choke Coil

A choke coil is an electric component that is intended to filter high-frequency current.
The current in a choke coil's interior produces local heat generation because of the skin effect, proximity effect, and current offsets caused by leakage flux near the gap.

Module:DP,TS | 2012-11

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58 - Efficiency Analysis of an IPM Motor

An IPM motor's features are in its rotor geometry, where its magnets are embedded. When the stator's rotating magnetic field is applied in a direction that runs perpendicular to the rotor magnets (the q-axis) the motor operates like a normal SPM motor. When the current phase is displaced and...

Module:DP, LS | 2017-02

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55 - Integrated Magnetization Analysis of an IPM Motor

Interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors often use strong rare earth magnets. They have poor workability, however, because the magnets are inserted into the rotor's small gaps during the assembly process. After the magnets have been inserted the rotor generates a strong magnetic field, which means...

Module:DP, ST | 2013-10

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54 - Analysis of the Cogging Force of a Moving Coil Linear Motor

Linear motors have been widely used in carrier devices and the drive units of machine tools due to their capability for high acceleration and deceleration, as well as their accurate positioning. In order to improve performance people are trying to obtain a large thrust force in order to enhance responsiveness,...

Module:TR | 2013-06

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46 - Sensitivity Analysis of the Magnetization Pattern of an SPM Motor

The magnet in a surface permanent magnet (SPM) motor is arranged on the rotor's surface, facing the stator. The motor produces torque from the interaction between the magnetic field produced by the magnet and the magnetic field produced from the excitation coil.

Module:DP,ST | 2013-04

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43 - Torque Analysis of a Coreless Motor

As their name implies, coreless motors have a rotor that lacks a core and is made of only a coil. For this reason, there is no core to produce iron loss in the rotor, and its moment of inertia is small. They can be controlled easily because their characteristics are linear and they have small torque ripples,...

Module:TR | 2016-02

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40 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor

The rotor's rotation in a permanent magnet motor can generate positive and negative torque, even when there is no current flow. This torque is called "cogging torque." While output torque a center of focus in motors used in precision equipment, cogging torque reduction must be taken into account as well. Skew and fractional slots are means of reducing this cogging torque. Skew is a widely used technique that attempts to cancel out cogging torque by applying an appropriate amount of twist to the stator or rotor.

Module:DP | 2018-04

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39 - Torque Analysis of a Three Phase Induction Motor Accounting for the Skew

An induction motor can utilize skew easily because the cage is constructed by metallic casting such as die casting. When skew is applied, it arranges the variations in the magnetic flux that links to the cage in a sinusoidal wave. This makes it possible to eliminate the harmonic components from...

Module:DP,TR | 2012-04

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38 - Starting Performance Analysis of a Single Phase Induction Motor

Single phase induction motors are widely used as small output motors for the drives in household electrical appliances and office machinery, like fans and washing machines, because they can use single phase AC, the typical power source for home electronics. Unlike three phase AC, however, single phase AC...

Module:DP | 2013-02

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36 - Operating Time Analysis of an Electromagnetic Relay

Electromagnetic relays are devices that use an electromagnet to physically connect and disconnect contact points. Magnetic flux is generated from the magnetomotive force, which is expressed as the product of the number of turns in the coil and the current that is applied to the coil.

Module:TR | 2016-02

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28 - Magnetic Field Analysis of a Speed Sensor

Antilock brake systems (ABS) have become a standard feature in vehicles, so speed sensors are attached to each wheel in order to measure their respective speeds. There are several methods of detecting rotation speed, but magnetic sensors are weather resistant and have a small number of parts because there only...

Module:TR | 2017-10

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25 - Analysis of a Claw Pole Alternator

Demand for high fuel efficiency in vehicles has been growing every year, and auxiliary machines like power steering and coolant pumps have been switching to electrical operation to support those needs. This is why the amount of electrical power being used in typical gasoline vehicles is increasing with each passing year,...

Module:TR | 2012-11

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24 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor with a Skewed Stator

Reductions in vibration and noise are being sought after because they are a cause of torque variations in motors, and demands for reduction are particularly strong with motors that are used in machine tools and power steering. Cogging torque, which is a torque variation that is produced when there is no current,...

Module:TR | 2013-06

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23 - Eccentricity Analysis of an IPM Motor

Rotor eccentricity is one cause of vibration and noise in motors. It is well known that motor torque is produced by electromagnetic attraction and repulsion between the stator and rotor, but not much attention is paid to the fact that electromagnetic attraction acts in the radial direction between the rotor and stator.

Module:DP | 2015-12

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16 - Analysis of a Hybrid Stepper Motor

Hybrid stepper motors are used as actuators for equipment where position detection accuracy is required, such as the joints of robots or rotary tables for machine tools. The rotor has a construction that sandwiches a magnet that is magnetized in the axial direction between two rotor cores that have serrated teeth...

Module:TR | 2016-02

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15 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor with a Step Skewed Magnet

Reductions in vibration and noise are being sought after because they are a cause of torque variations in motors, and demands for reduction are particularly strong with motors that are used in machine tools and power steering. Cogging torque, which is a torque variation that is produced when there is no current,...

Module:TR | 2016-06

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6 - Analysis of the SR Motor Torque Ripple

With the skyrocketing prices of rare earth magnets, expectations have been rising for SR (switched reluctance) motors because they have a motor format that does not use permanent magnets. SR motors have a simple structure that can achieve solid performance at a low price.

Module:DP | 2012-04

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2 - Cogging Torque Analysis of a PM Linear Motor

Linear motors have been widely used in carrier devices and the drive units of machine tools due to their capability for high acceleration and deceleration, as well as their accurate positioning. As an issue for improving performance, people are trying to obtain a large thrust force in order to enhance responsiveness,...

Module:TR | 2012-11