Application Catalog


2018-04-18

Torque



253 - Analysis of an Induction Generator

253 - Analysis of an Induction Generator

Induction machines are based on the double field revolving theory. An induction machine also operates using the principle of slip. Slip is defined as the difference between synchronous speed and operating speed where the synchronous speed is the speed of the rotating field. Thus depending on the slip an induction machine has 2 operating modes. When the slip is positive it acts as an induction motor and when it is negative it acts as an induction generator.

Module: DP | 2018-04




251 - Vibration Analysis of an Alternator

251 - Vibration Analysis of an Alternator

Electromagnetic force in the form of an electromagnetic excitation force acting on a motor or an alternator causes vibration and noise. Vibration and noise also are produced when this electromagnetic excitation force resonates with an eigenmode of the motor. In order to accurately evaluate this phenomenon, it is necessary to grasp each frequency and spatial mode in detail about the electromagnetic force and eigenmodes of the motor.

Module: DS, TR | 2018-04




244 - Analysis of Magnetic Field Intensity at Sensor Position

244 - Analysis of Magnetic Field Intensity at Sensor Position

In controlling the position and speed of motors, actuators, etc., it is necessary to detect the position of moving parts and calculate command values based on those signals. Methods for sensing magnetic flux leakage generating from a target object as ways of detecting positions are widespread. Sensing types range from those that use electromagnetic induction by pickup coil, to methods that use the Hall effect and magnetic resistance effect. Regardless of the frequency of the detection target, practical use of these latter methods has begun to advance in recent years because of the possibility to obtain signals corresponding to the magnitude of magnetic flux density.

Module: DP | 2018-04




242 - Analysis of the Attractive Forceof a Solenoid Valve Taking Into Account the Inclination of the Mover

242 - Analysis of the Attractive Force of a Solenoid Valve Taking Into Account the Inclination of the Mover

Solenoid valves are used to adjust the inflow or outflow of liquids or gases by translational movement of the iron core. If an electric current is passed through the coil, an electromagnet is created and an electromagnetic attractive force is generated between the moving part and the fixed parts. Since high responsiveness is required for valve opening and closing, an important item to consider is whether or not the power source used for driving and the solenoid valve used satisfy the required responsiveness and attractive force.

Module: ST | 2018-04




241 - Single-Phase Synchronous Motor N-T-I Characteristics Analysis

241 - Single-Phase Synchronous Motor N-T-I Characteristics Analysis

The widely used three-phase synchronous motor can be driven efficiently and stably but, on the other hand, costs tends to increase from using an inverter. Whereas since single-phase synchronous motors do not require inverters, they can reduce costs. Furthermore, because they are brushless, maintenance costs can also be lowered. In a single-phase synchronous motor, the back emf and the current flowing through the coils change in accordance with the rotation speed of the rotor. At low rotation speed, since the back emf is small, a large current flows through the coils, and magnetic saturation occurs in the magnetic circuit.

Module: DP | 2018-04




240 - N-T Characteristic Analysis of an IPM using PAM drive

240 - N-T Characteristic Analysis of an IPM using PAM drive

A standard PMSM needs a drive system in order to operate. There are different types of drives like the PAM drive and PWM drive. The objective of this document is to demonstrate the performance of a PMSM while using Pulse Amplitude Modulation or PAM drive. The principle of a PAM drive is simple, a carrier signal cuts through the supply signal to create pulses, the amplitude of these pulses can be controlled by controlling the amplitude of the supply signal.

Module: DP | 2018-04




239 - Fault Analysis in an IPM Motor

239 - Fault Analysis in an IPM Motor

Electrical faults are a commonly occurring conditions during operation of machines. These can cause an adverse effect on the power electronics or the power system connected to these machines. It is necessary to run many test cases with changing fault conditions for a comprehensive analysis of motor behavior during a fault. JMAG-RT Model can simulate the effect of harmonics on the system and magnetic saturation effect that are calculated from FEA.

Module: DP, RT | 2018-04




237 - AC Loss Analysis of an IPM Motor

237 - AC Loss Analysis of an IPM Motor

Primary power loss drivers in PM machines are iron, magnets and the winding. The main focus of this analysis is the winding losses, particularly those which occur in the end winding. The flux patterns occurring in the end winding region are different from those within the core winding length. These losses can be defined by their two components namely DC and AC losses , DC winding loss is easily analyzed by circuit analysis of the windings and are within the realm of arithmetic calculation.

Module: TR | 2018-04




234 - Vibration Characteristics Analysis of an Induction Motor

234 - Vibration Characteristics Analysis of an Induction Motor

Because the construction of induction motors is simple, easy, durable, and highly effective, they have been widely used throughout industry in general for an extensive period of time. In recent years however, there has been an increase in words raised concerning issues of pollution and improvements to work environments, and the noise that emanates from induction motors is also becoming an issue. Electromagnetic force acting on the induction motor is the source that generates torque, but at the same time the excitation force of the motor itself generates electromagnetic noise.

Module: DP, DS | 2018-04




231 - Vector Control Simulation of a Synchronous Reluctance Motor

231 - Vector Control Simulation of a Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Since control design and motor design are designed by different designers, cooperative design is difficult. However, in order to meet the sophisticated demands in recent years, it is important to identify problems while coordinating motor design and control/circuit design at the early stages of development. In cooperative design, it is possible to utilize circuit simulation using a highly accurate plant model.

Module: DP, RT | 2018-04




230 - 6-Phase SPM Motor Inverter Fault Simulation

230 - 6-Phase SPM Motor Inverter Fault Simulation

In recent years, multiphase design has been adopted for automotive motors due to the merits of cost reduction and improvement in functions. For example, for power supplies there are 6-phase motors with 3-phase double windings that use two inverters, having a 30 deg phase shift in electrical angle. From this, by using multiple inverters, enhanced redundancy of the in-vehicle motor system is acheived. The motor system can be stopped safely without falling to be in an uncontrollable state even if a failure occurs in a part of an inverter.

Module: DP, RT | 2018-04




227 - Vector Control Simulation for Three-Phase Induction Motor

227 - Vector Control Simulation for Three-Phase Induction Motor

Since control design and motor design are designed by different designers, coordination of the designs is difficult. However, in order to realize the sophisticated demands of recent years, it is important to identify problems during the coordination between motor design and control/circuit design in the early stages of development. In cooperative design, it is possible to utilize circuit simulation using a highly accurate plant model.

Module: FQ, RT | 2018-04




226 - SPM Motor Vibration Characteristics Analysis

226 - SPM Motor Vibration Characteristics Analysis

The electromagnetic force acting on the motor resonates with the eigenmode of the motor, causing vibration and noise. In order to accurately evaluate this phenomenon, it is necessary to ascertain each frequency and spatial mode in detail regarding the electromagnetic force and eigenmode of the motor. Vibration (acceleration) is obtained by the superposition of electromagnetic force and eigenmode, but since both are physical quantities having vector distributions of space, analysis by means of FEA is useful.

Module: DP, DS | 2018-04




225 - Induced Voltage Analysis of Memory Motorusing Variable Magnetized Magnet

225 - Induced Voltage Analysis of Memory Motor using Variable Magnetized Magnet

Along with the development of electric vehicles, demands are increasing for a balance in trade-offs between low speed-high torque and high speed within permanent magnet motors. For that reason, research into the variable flux motors capable of obtaining the magnetic force necessary for high torque and the ability to reduce induced voltage within high speed rotation regions has been actively studied in recent years.

Module: DP | 2018-04




223 - Multi-Objective Optimization of IPM Motors Considering Stress at High Rotation

223 - Multi-Objective Optimization of IPM Motors Considering Stress at High Rotation

In the IPM motor, a permanent magnet is embedded in the rotor along with a flux barrier. The purpose of the flux barrier is to prevent the magnetic flux of the magnet from penetrating the adjacent magnetic pole and to efficiently convert the magnetic force into torque. Therefore, in order to increase the magnetic resistance of the magnetic path to the adjacent pole, it is desirable from the viewpoint of improving the torque to make the bridge portion thin.

Module: DP, DS | 2018-04




222 - Irreversible Thermal Demagnetization Analysis of Incompletely Magnetized Magnets

222 - Irreversible Thermal Demagnetization Analysis of Incompletely Magnetized Magnets

Magnets are used in motors and display large variation in their properties verse temperature. For rare earth magnets at temperatures in the hundreds of degrees demagnetization can occur. Since the presence or absence and degree of demagnetization are determined by a combination of the demagnetizing field and the temperature applied, it is necessary to pay attention to magnetic circuit design in addition to the heat resistance of the magnet itself.

Module: DP, ST | 2018-04




219 - Cogging Torque Analysis of Axial Flux Motor

219 - Cogging Torque Analysis of Axial Flux Motor

Axial flux motors are a type of electrical machines which use the flux in axial direction to create a magnetic circuit linkage with the other components in the magnets. The main benefit of this machine being that it is thinner than the radial motors and can have a high torque to magnet densities if designed correctly. They are used in various automotive to other applications.

Module: TR | 2018-04




217 - Creating an Efficiency Map for a Three-Phase Induction Motor

217 - Creating an Efficiency Map for a Three-Phase Induction Motor

Due to advances in the variable speed drive technology of induction motors, its application to fields requiring wide drive ranges is making progress. Efficiency maps for drive ranges are available as an effective method of evaluating the properties of induction motors in these industries. In order to create an efficiency map on actual measurements or on the computer, it is necessary to search for the highest efficiency point by allocating rotation speeds, voltage, and slip in the drive range at each load point as parameters.

Module: FQ, RT | 2018-04




216 - Simulation of a Claw-Pole Type Alternator Using a Control Simulator and JMAG-RT

216 - Simulation of a Claw-Pole Type Alternator Using a Control Simulator and JMAG-RT

The demand for low fuel consumption of automobiles has been increasing every year, and types of auxiliary systems and devices such as power steering and cooling pumps are being electrified to support this. For this reason, the amount of electricity used has increased every year for general gasoline-powered vehicles, and the demand for higher output power for alternators which supply electricity is increasing.

Module: RT, TR | 2018-04




215 - Simulation of IPM Motor with Delta Connection Using Control Simulator and JMAG-RT

215 - Simulation of IPM Motor with Delta Connection Using Control Simulator and JMAG-RT

Traditionally, motor control design and design of the motor itself have mostly been performed independently, and cooperative designs have been difficult to carry out. Also, for advanced motor control design, a motor model showing more details and conformity to the behavior of the actual machine is required by control simulation. In JMAG, it is possible to create a detailed model that conforms to the actual machine as well as account for spatial harmonics and magnetic saturation characteristics that are included in the motor.

Module: DP, RT | 2018-04




214 - Monitoring the Radial Force Acting on the Teeth of IPM Motors Using Circuit Control Simulation

214 - Monitoring the Radial Force Acting on the Teeth of IPM Motors Using Circuit Control Simulation

Motors used in electric vehicles are generally quieter than engines, but vibration and noise may be a problem because the drive range is wide. This vibration and noise also occur due to electromagnetic excitation forces and eigenmode resonances of the motor. Among the electromagnetic excitation forces, for the radial force acting on the teeth the second harmonic becomes dominant as the magnet passes by two poles in one electrical angle.

Module: DP, RT | 2018-04




213 - Circuit/Control Simulation of a Wound-Field Synchronous Motor

213 - Circuit/Control Simulation of a Wound-Field Synchronous Motor

Traditionally, motor control design and motor design are often independent processes, with cooperative design being difficult. Meanwhile, for advanced motor control design, a plant model that is more detailed and behaves like the actual machine is required for control simulation.

Module: DP, TR | 2018-01




211 - IPM Motor Wire Joule Loss Analysis

211 - IPM Motor Wire Joule Loss Analysis

The square wires and flat wires of segment coils and edgewise coils, etc., are being used for the purpose of improving lamination factors, the reduction of end parts, minimization, improvements in heat dissipation, and improvements in productivity in IPM motors. On the other hand, from the viewpoint of higher efficiency and increasing output, etc., motor coil resistance to loss is becoming a necessity as so to obtain a reduction of loss in electrical appliances in general.

Module: DP | 2018-04




210 - Torque Decoupling of In-out Magnet Coupling

210 - Torque Decoupling of In-out Magnet Coupling

Magnet coupling has two rotors, the driving side and the passive side. Unlike magnetic gears, the driving side and the passive side rotate synchronously. If torque exceeds the allowable torque, connection from the driving side to the passive side will slip, causing torque decoupling.

Module: DP | 2018-01




207 - Transfer Torque and Efficiency Analysis of Magnetic Gear

207 - Transfer Torque and Efficiency Analysis of Magnetic Gear

Gears are used to transfer power. Velocity and torque are transformed depending on the gear ratio. Originally, mechanical gears using conventional wheels had issues with noise due to the meshing of wheels, and its maintenance requiring lubricating oil. As a gear to solve these issues, there is the magnetic gear.

Module: DP | 2015-12




205 - Analysis of IPM Motor Characteristics using Thermal Equivalent Circuit

205 - Analysis of IPM Motor Characteristics using Thermal Equivalent Circuit

To realize high output and efficiency in a motor, it will be important to understand temperature increase in each part of the motor. This is because coil resistance and magnet characteristics change with increase in temperature, and this may cause a large impact in the motor characteristics.

Module: DP | 2016-06




201 - Iron Loss Analysis of an SR Motor

201 - Iron Loss Analysis of an SR Motor

With the skyrocketing prices of rare earth magnets, expectations have been rising for SR (switched reluctance) motors because they have a motor format that does not use permanent magnets. SR motors have a simple structure that can achieve solid performance at a low price. However, since they do not use permanent magnets,

Module:DP | 2014-12




200 - Iron Loss Analysis of IPM Motor using Hysteresis Model

200 - Iron Loss Analysis of IPM Motor using Hysteresis Model

Recently, PM motors are being applied in home appliances and electric automobiles, and the demand for compactness and high power is increasing. On the other hand, small and high-power motors tend to be affected by high-frequency components due to magnetic saturation and high rotations, which results...

Module:DP, LS | 2014-12




195 - Torque characteristics analysis of three-phase induction motors using 3D correction function

195 - Torque characteristics analysis of three-phase induction motors using 3D correction function

An induction motor is a motor in which the rotating magnetic field of the stator winding causes induced current to flow in an secondary conductor, which exerts force on the rotor in the rotational direction and causes it to spin.
In an induction motor, magnetic flux in the axis direction, such as leakage flux in the coil end, can...

Module:DP, TR | 2014-12




194 - Analysis of High-Speed Rotation Motors Accounting for Eddy Current

194 - Analysis of High-Speed Rotation Motors Accounting for Eddy Current

PM synchronous motors are used in HEV drives, air conditioner compressors, and various other industries. Especially in case of PM synchronous motors for HEV drives, high-speed rotation is advancing faster than ever to achieve a small size with high output density.

Module:DP, LS | 2018-01




193 - Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameters of Single-Phase Induction Motors

193 - Calculation of Equivalent Circuit Parameters of Single-Phase Induction Motors

Since single phase induction motors can be used with single-phase AC, which is common in general household power supply, it is widely used for electrical home and office appliances such as washers and fans as small power motors. However, unlike three-phase AC, single phase AC cannot ...

Module:FQ | 2014-12




191 - Torque Analysis of Three-Phase Induction Motors Accounting for the Skew Using the Multi-slice Method

191 - Torque Analysis of Three-Phase Induction Motors Accounting for the Skew Using the Multi-slice Method

An induction motor can utilize skew easily because the cage is constructed by metallic casting such as die casting. When skew is applied, it arranges the variations in the magnetic flux that links to the cage in a sinusoidal wave. This makes it possible to eliminate the harmonic components from...

Module:DP | 2014-12




188 - Thermal Demagnetization Analysis of IPM Motors Accounting for Coercive Force Distribution of Magnets

188 - Thermal Demagnetization Analysis of IPM Motors Accounting for Coercive Force Distribution of Magnets

The purpose of this Application Note is to help JMAG users understand the steps and settings used in a JMAG analysis. It is intended to help those who are working with a new analysis target better understand the analysis steps and the setting contents.

Module:DP | 2014-05




181 - Analysis of SR Motor Drive Characteristics

181 - Analysis of SR Motor Drive Characteristics

With the skyrocketing prices of rare earth magnets, expectations have been rising for SR (switched reluctance) motors because they have a motor format that does not use permanent magnets. SR motors have a simple structure that can achieve solid performance at a low price.

Module:DP, LS | 2016-10




180 - Analysis of SR Motor Dynamic Characteristics

180 - Analysis of SR Motor Dynamic Characteristics

With the skyrocketing prices of rare earth magnets, expectations have been rising for SR (switched reluctance) motors because they have a motor format that does not use permanent magnets. SR motors have a simple structure that can achieve solid performance at a low price.

Module:DP | 2014-04




179 - Analysis of SR Motor Static Characteristics

179 - Analysis of SR Motor Static Characteristics

With the skyrocketing prices of rare earth magnets, expectations have been rising for SR (switched reluctance) motors because they have a motor format that does not use permanent magnets. SR motors have a simple structure that can achieve solid performance at a low price.

Module:DP | 2013-01




177 - Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Three Phase Induction Motor

177 - Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Three Phase Induction Motor

An induction motor is a motor in which the rotating magnetic field of the stator coils causes induced current to flow in an auxiliary conductor, which exerts force on the rotor in the rotational direction and causes it to spin. Induction motors are widely used in everything from industrial machines to home appliances...

Module:DP,LS | 2012-08




176 - Drive Characteristic Analysis of a Three-Phase Induction Motor

176 - Drive Characteristic Analysis of a Three-Phase Induction Motor

An induction motor is a motor in which the rotating magnetic field of the stator coils causes induced current to flow in an auxiliary conductor, which exerts force on the rotor in the rotational direction and causes it to spin. Induction motors are widely used in everything from industrial machines to home appliances...

Module:DP,LS | 2012-08




173 - Basic Characteristic Analysis of an IPM Motor

173 - Basic Characteristic Analysis of an IPM Motor

Demand for higher efficiency and smaller size in motors has grown from the need to accommodate devices that incorporate miniaturization and energy efficiency in their designs. In order to meet this demand, motors have to improve their output density and reduce their losses.

Module:DP, LS | 2017-02




167 - Iron Loss Analysis of a Three Phase Induction Motor

167 - Iron Loss Analysis of a Three Phase Induction Motor

An induction motor is a motor in which the rotating magnetic field of the stator coils causes induced current to flow in an auxiliary conductor, which produces force in the rotational direction.
Induction motors are widely used in everything from industrial machines to home appliances...

Module:DP,LS | 2013-06




166 - Line Start Simulation of an Induction Machine Using a Control Simulator and the JMAG-RT

166 - Line Start Simulation of an Induction Machine Using a Control Simulator and the JMAG-RT

Collaborative design is difficult because the controls and motor are designed independently. However, it has become necessary to resolve challenges through high-accuracy simulations at the beginning of the development process in order meet demands for more advanced motors. An effective way of achieving this...

Module:FQ,LS,RT | 2015-12




165 - Creating an Efficiency Map for an IPM Motor

165 - Creating an Efficiency Map for an IPM Motor

IPM motors use rare earth sintered permanent magnets because they have strong magnetic energy. They can use the magnetic torque from the magnet's field and the rotating magnetic field in addition to the reluctance torque that originates from the difference in inductance between the d-axis and q-axis,...

Module:DP,LS,RT | 2017-10




163 - Torque-Current Curve Analysis of an SPM Motor

163 - Torque-Current Curve Analysis of an SPM Motor

One of the fundamental properties of a permanent magnet synchronous motor is the relationship between its current and torque (torque-current curve). The torque generated at each current value is uniform with increases in current up to a certain point, so the torque increases in a linear fashion. However,...

Module:DP | 2013-06




162 - Drive Simulation of an SR Motor using a Control Simulator and the JMAG-RT

162 - Drive Simulation of an SR Motor using a Control Simulator and the JMAG-RT

SR motors are gaining attention as motors that do not use permanent magnets. However, torque pulsation is greater in SR motors because of the way their torque is generated, so it is seen as important to suppress torque pulsation not only with detailed design of magnetic circuits, but also using SR motor control.

Module:DP,RT | 2015-04




161 - Line Start Analysis of a Three-phase Induction Machine

161 - Line Start Analysis of a Three-phase Induction Machine

The simplest method for starting an induction motor is a line start that connects the motor to a direct power supply. For a line start, the static impedance is small compared to impedance during rated operation, so a large current flows during the initial start-up.

Module:DP | 2012-08




159 - Sensitivity Analysis of Dimensional Tolerance in an SPM Motor

159 - Sensitivity Analysis of Dimensional Tolerance in an SPM Motor

The corners of magnets used in surface permanent magnet (SPM) motors can be filleted, chamfered, etc. However, it is difficult to maintain exactly the same production in the manufacturing process, and some variation among finished products will occur. Dimensional tolerance is set so as to eliminate...

Module:DP | 2013-10




157 - Analysis of Eddy Currents in an IPM Motor Using the Gap Flux Boundary

157 - Analysis of Eddy Currents in an IPM Motor Using the Gap Flux Boundary

It is becoming increasingly common for permanent magnet motors to use rare earth magnets in order to achieve higher output density because they have a high energy product. Neodymium rare earth magnets have a high electric conductivity because they contain a great deal of iron, so when a varying magnetic field...

Module:DP, FQ | 2014-10




156 - Segregation Analysis of Torque Components for an IPM Motor

156 - Segregation Analysis of Torque Components for an IPM Motor

IPM motors are often used as high performance motors because they are highly efficient and their structure makes it possible to achieve a wide range of operation. They are able to achieve high efficiency because they obtain maximum total torque by using their controls to adjust their magnet and reluctance torques.

Module:DP | 2012-04




124 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor Accounting for Uneven Stator Diameter

124 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor Accounting for Uneven Stator Diameter

When a motor is assembled, the inner diameter of the stator can become uneven because of fabrication errors, shrink fitting, press fitting, etc. Cogging torque increases due to this unevenness, causing vibration and noise.
When a frame is pressed onto a stator core, and when the frame thickness is not uniform...

Module:DP,DS | 2013-06




120 - Thermal Demagnetization Analysis of an SPM Motor

120 - Thermal Demagnetization Analysis of an SPM Motor

Exactly how to resolve the problem of rising temperatures is a vital issue when trying to achieve an improvement in a motor's efficiency and output. Among the materials used in a motor, the magnet experiences the greatest variations in properties in relation to temperature. In the case of rare-earth magnets,...

Module:DP | 2014-08




119 - Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Three Phase Wound Rotor Induction Motor

119 - Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Three Phase Wound Rotor Induction Motor

A wound-rotor induction motor is a motor that causes induced current to flow in the secondary coil using a rotating magnetic field in the statorcoil, and thus produces turning force through the interaction of the current and the rotating magnetic field. Because induced current flows through the coil, electric power

Module:DP | 2015-05




115 - Eccentricity Analysis of an SPM Motor

115 - Eccentricity Analysis of an SPM Motor

Motors have many parts, which must be assembled correctly for a usable product. Even if each part is made within acceptable limits for manufacturing errors, when various parts with small errors are put together, the errors can have a cumulative effect. In particular, if eccentricity (deviation, deflection) occurs in the cylindrical...

Module:DP | 2013-04




111 - Starting Performance Analysis of a Universal Motor

111 - Starting Performance Analysis of a Universal Motor

A universal motor is a motor that rotates on both direct and alternating currents. A universal motor is used in home appliances and industrial machines because these motors are robust, compact, light, and fast with a simple construction, and have a large starting torque. However, problems such as vibration and...

Module:DP | 2015-12




109 - Operating Time Analysis of an Electromagnetic Relay Accounting for Eddy Currents

109 - Operating Time Analysis of an Electromagnetic Relay Accounting for Eddy Currents

Electromagnetic relays are devices that use an electromagnet to physically connect and disconnect contact points. Magnetic flux is generated from the magnetomotive force, which is expressed as the product of the number of turns in the coil and the current that is applied to the coil.

Module:TR | 2017-08




106 - Iron Loss Analysis of a Brush Motor

106 - Iron Loss Analysis of a Brush Motor

Brush motors are used in many devices, particularly smaller-sized ones. With demands for energy-saving in recent years, higher efficiency is desired not only in high performance and large-scale motors used in HEVs and large appliances, but also in small-scale brush motors. To respond to these demands,...

Module:DP,LS | 2017-12




103 - Efficiency Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

103 - Efficiency Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

A permanent magnet synchronous motor rotates by converting electric energy to mechanical energy.
The important thing when converting energy is efficiency indicated by the power factor for the amount of current effectively used, as well as the percentage of output versus input.

Module:DP,LS | 2017-02




95 - Analysis of a Universal Motor

95 - Analysis of a Universal Motor

Motors in electrical industrial equipment are often used for cutting and machining, so it is desirable for them to be usable at high rotation speeds. Induction motors cannot achieve high rotation speeds with commercial power supplies because their rotation speed is determined by alternating current frequency.

Module:DP | 2013-06




94 - Analysis of Detent Torque of a PM Stepper Motor

94 - Analysis of Detent Torque of a PM Stepper Motor

PM stepper motors are commonly used for positioning of moving parts in small devices such as printers and video equipment. In order for its drive to function with an open loop, the most important characteristics for a stepper motor are controllability and holding torque, and not the motor's output.

Module:TR | 2013-02




93 - Cogging Torque Analysis of a Motor with 8 Poles and 9 Slots Accounting for Eccentricity

93 - Cogging Torque Analysis of a Motor with 8 Poles and 9 Slots Accounting for Eccentricity

Eccentricity can occur on the center axis or the rotation axis of a motor. It is advantageous to evaluate the effects of eccentricity because it can cause vibrations and noise and break the symmetry of the magnetic flux density distribution and the electromagnetic force.

Module:DP | 2010-08




89 - Stiffness Torque Analysis of a PM Stepper Motor

89 - Stiffness Torque Analysis of a PM Stepper Motor

PM stepper motors are commonly used for positioning of moving parts in small devices such as printers and video equipment. In order for its drive to function with an open loop, the most important characteristics for a stepper motor are controllability and holding torque, and not the motor's output.

Module:TR | 2016-10




82 - Analysis of a Synchronous Reluctance Motor

82 - Analysis of a Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Skyrocketing prices of rare earth magnets have led to rising expectations for synchronous reluctance motors (referred to below as SynRMs), which do not use permanent magnets. SynRMs have a simple structure that can achieve solid performance at a low price. However, torque is generated only by the rotor's saliency and...

Module:DP | 2013-06




80 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor with Skewed Magnetization

80 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor with Skewed Magnetization

Reductions in vibration and noise are being sought after because they are a cause of torque variations in motors, and demands for reduction are particularly strong with motors that are used in machine tools and power steering. Cogging torque, which is a torque variation that is produced when there is no current,...

Module:TR | 2013-06




74 - Speed Versus Torque Analysis of a Single-Phase Induction Motor

74 - Speed Versus Torque Analysis of a Single-Phase Induction Motor

Single-phase induction motors are widely used as small output motors for the drives in household electrical appliances and office machinery, like fans and washing machines, because they can use single-phase AC, the typical power source for home electronics. Unlike three-phase AC, however, single-phase AC...

Module:DP | 2017-12




71 - Basic Characteristic Analysis of a Motor with 2 Brushes, 6 Poles, and 19 Slots

71 - Basic Characteristic Analysis of a Motor with 2 Brushes, 6 Poles, and 19 Slots

Small brush motors generally have a structure containing 2 poles and 3 slots, but there are times when a multi-pole structure is adopted in order to produce higher torque. The reason for this is because achieving a higher torque makes it possible to omit deceleration systems. Brush motors have a construction where...

Module:DP | 2013-10




69 - Iron Loss Analysis of an IPM Motor

69 - Iron Loss Analysis of an IPM Motor

Demand for higher efficiency and smaller size in motors has grown from the need to accommodate devices that incorporate miniaturization and energy efficiency in their designs. In order to meet this demand, motors have to improve their output density and reduce their losses. One type of loss commonly found in motors...

Module:DP,LS | 2017-02




68 - Speed Versus Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Three-Phase Induction Motor

68 - Speed Versus Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Three-Phase Induction Motor

An induction motor is a motor in which a rotating magnetic field in the stator coils causes induced current to flow in an auxiliary conductor. This current and magnetic field exert force on the auxiliary conductor in the rotation direction and cause the motor's rotor to rotate. Induction motors are widely used in everything from...

Module:DP | 2013-10




63 - Analysis of Torque Characteristics of a Cage Induction Motor

63 - Analysis of Torque Characteristics of a Cage Induction Motor

Induction motors have been widely used for a long time in general industries because they have a simple structure, and are affordable, robust and highly efficient. When an induction motor rotates at synchronous speed, no torque is produced. However, when proper slip is caused, the maximum torque can be obtained.

Module:FQ | 2016-10




59 - Iron Loss Analysis of an IPM Motor Accounting for a PWM -Direct Link-

59 - Iron Loss Analysis of an IPM Motor Accounting for a PWM -Direct Link-

Vector controls using a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) control are commonly included in the drive circuits of high efficiency motors. A PWM control makes it possible to adjust the phase or amplitude of a current according to load and rotation speed, so they can achieve high efficiency in a wide operation range.

Module:DP, LS | 2015-12




58 - Efficiency Analysis of an IPM Motor

58 - Efficiency Analysis of an IPM Motor

An IPM motor's features are in its rotor geometry, where its magnets are embedded. When the stator's rotating magnetic field is applied in a direction that runs perpendicular to the rotor magnets (the q-axis) the motor operates like a normal SPM motor. When the current phase is displaced and...

Module:DP, LS | 2017-02




56 - Torque Characteristics Analysis of a Self Starting Type Permanent Magnet Motor

56 - Torque Characteristics Analysis of a Self Starting Type Permanent Magnet Motor

A self starting permanent magnet motor combines the characteristics of an induction motor and a permanent magnet motor, so it has higher efficiency than an induction motor even without a control device like an inverter. It behaves as an induction motor when it starts, generating torque when the rotor cage first slips against...

Module:DP | 2013-10




55 - Integrated Magnetization Analysis of an IPM Motor

55 - Integrated Magnetization Analysis of an IPM Motor

Interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors often use strong rare earth magnets. They have poor workability, however, because the magnets are inserted into the rotor's small gaps during the assembly process. After the magnets have been inserted the rotor generates a strong magnetic field, which means...

Module:DP, ST | 2013-10




46 - Sensitivity Analysis of the Magnetization Pattern of an SPM Motor

46 - Sensitivity Analysis of the Magnetization Pattern of an SPM Motor

The magnet in a surface permanent magnet (SPM) motor is arranged on the rotor's surface, facing the stator. The motor produces torque from the interaction between the magnetic field produced by the magnet and the magnetic field produced from the excitation coil.

Module:DP,ST | 2013-04




43 - Torque Analysis of a Coreless Motor

43 - Torque Analysis of a Coreless Motor

As their name implies, coreless motors have a rotor that lacks a core and is made of only a coil. For this reason, there is no core to produce iron loss in the rotor, and its moment of inertia is small. They can be controlled easily because their characteristics are linear and they have small torque ripples,...

Module:TR | 2016-02




40 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor

40 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor

The rotor's rotation in a permanent magnet motor can generate positive and negative torque, even when there is no current flow. This torque is called "cogging torque." While output torque a center of focus in motors used in precision equipment, cogging torque reduction must be taken into account as well. Skew and fractional slots are means of reducing this cogging torque. Skew is a widely used technique that attempts to cancel out cogging torque by applying an appropriate amount of twist to the stator or rotor.

Module:DP | 2018-04




39 - Torque Analysis of a Three Phase Induction Motor Accounting for the Skew

39 - Torque Analysis of a Three Phase Induction Motor Accounting for the Skew

An induction motor can utilize skew easily because the cage is constructed by metallic casting such as die casting. When skew is applied, it arranges the variations in the magnetic flux that links to the cage in a sinusoidal wave. This makes it possible to eliminate the harmonic components from...

Module:DP,TR | 2012-04




38 - Starting Performance Analysis of a Single Phase Induction Motor

38 - Starting Performance Analysis of a Single Phase Induction Motor

Single phase induction motors are widely used as small output motors for the drives in household electrical appliances and office machinery, like fans and washing machines, because they can use single phase AC, the typical power source for home electronics. Unlike three phase AC, however, single phase AC...

Module:DP | 2013-02




37 - Vector Control Analysis of an IPM Motor  Using Control Simulator and the JMAG-RT

37 - Vector Control Analysis of an IPM Motor Using Control Simulator and the JMAG-RT

Traditionally, the design of a motor's controls and the design of the motor itself were often performed independently because coordinated designs were difficult to carry out. Motor control designs have been getting more advanced, however, so there has been an increasing demand for simulations...

Module:DP,RT | 2015-04




36 - Operating Time Analysis of an Electromagnetic Relay

36 - Operating Time Analysis of an Electromagnetic Relay

Electromagnetic relays are devices that use an electromagnet to physically connect and disconnect contact points. Magnetic flux is generated from the magnetomotive force, which is expressed as the product of the number of turns in the coil and the current that is applied to the coil.

Module:TR | 2016-02




26 - Braking Torque Analysis of an Electromagnetic Brake

26 - Braking Torque Analysis of an Electromagnetic Brake

An electromagnetic brake is an auxiliary brake device for large-scale vehicles like trucks and buses. It is fit onto the propeller shaft and applies a braking force. There are both hydraulic and electromagnetic types. With an electromagnetic brake, a magnetic field is produced in the stator coil, making eddy currents...

Module:TR | 2013-10




24 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor with a Skewed Stator

24 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor with a Skewed Stator

Reductions in vibration and noise are being sought after because they are a cause of torque variations in motors, and demands for reduction are particularly strong with motors that are used in machine tools and power steering. Cogging torque, which is a torque variation that is produced when there is no current,...

Module:TR | 2013-06




23 - Eccentricity Analysis of an IPM Motor

23 - Eccentricity Analysis of an IPM Motor

Rotor eccentricity is one cause of vibration and noise in motors. It is well known that motor torque is produced by electromagnetic attraction and repulsion between the stator and rotor, but not much attention is paid to the fact that electromagnetic attraction acts in the radial direction between the rotor and stator.

Module:DP | 2015-12




18 - Thermal Analysis of an IPM Motor

18 - Thermal Analysis of an IPM Motor

Exactly how to resolve the problem of rising temperatures is a critical issue when trying to achieve an improvement in a motor's efficiency and output. In order to solve this problem it is important to investigate a magnetic design that reduces the losses themselves because they are a source of heat,...

Module:HT, LS, TR | 2017-10




16 - Analysis of a Hybrid Stepper Motor

16 - Analysis of a Hybrid Stepper Motor

Hybrid stepper motors are used as actuators for equipment where position detection accuracy is required, such as the joints of robots or rotary tables for machine tools. The rotor has a construction that sandwiches a magnet that is magnetized in the axial direction between two rotor cores that have serrated teeth...

Module:TR | 2016-02




15 - Cogging Torque Analysis of  an SPM Motor with a Step Skewed Magnet

15 - Cogging Torque Analysis of an SPM Motor with a Step Skewed Magnet

Reductions in vibration and noise are being sought after because they are a cause of torque variations in motors, and demands for reduction are particularly strong with motors that are used in machine tools and power steering. Cogging torque, which is a torque variation that is produced when there is no current,...

Module:TR | 2016-06




11 - Pull-in/pull-out Analysis of a PM Stepper Motor Using a Control Simulator and the JMAG-RT

11 - Pull-in/pull-out Analysis of a PM Stepper Motor Using a Control Simulator and the JMAG-RT

Stepper motors are commonly used for positioning in printers and digital cameras. With a PM stepper motor, there are excitation types such as one phase excitation, two phase excitation, and one-two phase excitation for the excitation system, and the accuracy for stepper motor positioning changes depending...

Module:RT,TR | 2015-08




8 - Analysis of an Axial Gap Motor

8 - Analysis of an Axial Gap Motor

Unlike typical cylindrical motors such as radial gap motors, axial gap motors have a structure in which the stator and the rotor, which is arranged on a disk, face each other and produce rotation. For that reason, because it is possible to arrange thinner parts than with a radial gap motor, they can respond to demands...

Module:TR | 2014-12




7 - Analysis of a Spindle Motor

7 - Analysis of a Spindle Motor

Spindle motors are often used as drive motors where limited space is an issue, as is the case with storage media like hard disks. They employ an outer rotor structure in order to obtain a large torque, but to do so they have to use a great deal of permanent magnets while remaining thin and compact.

Module:TR | 2013-02




6 - Analysis of the SR Motor Torque Ripple

6 - Analysis of the SR Motor Torque Ripple

With the skyrocketing prices of rare earth magnets, expectations have been rising for SR (switched reluctance) motors because they have a motor format that does not use permanent magnets. SR motors have a simple structure that can achieve solid performance at a low price.

Module:DP | 2012-04




3 - Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Brush Motor

3 - Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Brush Motor

A brush motor generates torque through the electromagnetic attraction and repulsion between its rotor and stator. They do not have many parts and do not require drive circuits, so they are widely used as a power source for compact equipment. A brush motor is composed of a magnetic circuit part,...

Module:DP | 2016-04




1 - Torque Characteristic Analysis  of a Three Phase Induction Motor

1 - Torque Characteristic Analysis of a Three Phase Induction Motor

An induction motor is a motor in which the rotating magnetic field of the stator coils causes induced current to flow in an auxiliary conductor, exerting force on the rotor in the rotational direction and causing it to spin. Induction motors are widely used in everything from industrial machines to home appliances...

Module:DP | 2012-04